By E. W. Kellogg III, Ph.D. © 2013
‘The most difficult thing of all is to see what is before your eyes.’ Goethe
In our waking lives, we usually assume that other people experience the world pretty much the way we do, even though under normal circumstances we rarely – if ever – check to see if this actually seems the case. But do we really? Studies on the reports of people who witness the same event, routinely show wide discrepancies with respect to both minor – and major details.
And if this proves the case for people in physical reality, what might one expect to happen in dreams? Do the Dream Entities (DEs) that we encounter in dreams experience the same dreamscapes that we do?
Of course, many western psychologists still believe that dreamscapes, and the DEs that dreamers encounter in them, derive entirely from the dreamer’s mind, a view which makes the issue of consensus in this context nonsensical. Because of this underlying assumption, even today dreamworkers typically describe the entities that appear in their dreams as “characters,” which conveys the impression that DEs not only lack any sort of independent consciousness, but that they seem akin to fictional characters appearing in a book. However, the validation of psi-dreaming (1,2) has made strictly subjective, solipsistic theories of dreaming outdated and untenable.
Dreaming can clearly involve a kind of perception. (3) And evidential accounts of mutual dreaming, where two or more people encounter one another in dreams, confirmed later through consensually matching details, demonstrates that dreaming can have an intersubjective component as well. (4-6)
This makes the situation when it comes to DEs rather more complicated. For example, consider these possibilities. A DE might simply exist as a thoughtform projection of your mind, or as an aspect of yourself. Thoughtform DEs might act like automatons, or even manikins, having a limited range of responses (like a computer character in a video game), or unable to respond at all should you attempt to interact with them.
However, a DE corresponding to an aspect of yourself might appear far more alive, and while connected to you in some sense, may act in spontaneous and unexpected ways. They, like the dreamer, may possess self-consciousness to some degree, in some instances, perhaps even greater than the dreamer’s.
However, once one accepts the intersubjective nature of dreaming, other possibilities spring to mind. You might dream WITH someone from Waking Physical Reality (WPR), rather than OF them. They may look like their physical selves, or not. If you encounter a lucid dreamer, they may have a “brightness in their eyes,” act independently, and clearly demonstrate that they have a mind of their own.
On the other hand, if immersed in a state of ordinary dreaming consciousness, they may come across as zombie like, and difficult to differentiate from a manikin. And just as you can create thoughtform DEs through projection, given that dreaming occurs in an intersubjective space, so can other dreamers! So, not every DE or every dreamscape that you experience even in “your” dreams, may have all that much to do with you.
In my experience, dreaming takes place through an act of intersubjective co-creation, and depending on the circumstances, my input into the dreamscapes I experience, or the DEs I meet, may dominate, or play a much smaller role.
For example, on an agreed on night in 1998, in a controlled experiment, I focused on meeting up with Linda Magallón in a lucid dream, where we would attempt to exchange information. I managed to have a fully lucid dream, met a dream [Linda], who wore a simple reddish orange dress, in a large hotel, and exchanged code words and gestures.
After this, we went outside, and the dreamscape unexpectedly changed to something quite different: “[Linda] and I leave, going through a sort of water and plant circular garden tunnel like the entranceway at the Turtle Bay Hilton ballroom in Hawaii. . . . As we go outside I get another idea, and remember that Linda M. definitely wanted to go flying in her ideal lucid mutual dream. She still looks a bit subdued to me, but she perks right up and looks cheerful and enthusiastic as I suggest this to her.
I notice my dog [Shazam] has come along, at first I have a leash on him and try carrying him, and Linda laughs at the sight. I realize that if I do have the dream self of Shazam that he can most likely make it back on his own to physical reality, and I let him go. He runs off at tremendous speed as [Linda] and I fly over a magical dreamscape, of lush vegetation and trees, like a temperate rain forest.
Somehow I get the impression that we fly in an enormous cavern, and the whole scene glows with golden light, although I see no sun or light source. The overhead ‘sky’ looks uniformly dark. We fly over a sort of small golden-green grassy meadow with a little trickling stream meandering down its center, with dark green forest bordering along either side.
[Shazam] makes larger and larger jumps, almost flying but not quite, occasionally making messy landings in the stream as he enthusiastically tries to imitate us. It makes a very comical sight, and both of us laugh. I have a great deal of fun.”
On the upper left corner, she taped a photo of me, and on the upper right corner, she added a post-it note with the code words she had chosen, “SPLASH DOWN.” When she woke up during the night, she repeated “Ed Kellogg! Splash Down!” while visualizing an “Ed Kellogg in the Grotto” scene.
Well, to make a long story short (I’ll write a full account later), although Linda didn’t recall dreaming of a grotto that night, I certainly did, and it appeared in a dream context in which I had no expectation of it doing so. So, in this case, who do you think played the greater part in “dreaming up” the grotto?
After this dream I felt impelled to take the idea of intersubjective dreaming much more seriously. Although I’d read many compelling examples of dream telepathy under controlled conditions in the Maimonides research studies (1), nothing has more impact than firsthand experience.
So what happens when one does do a consensus reality check with other DEs? My earliest recorded example:
Do You See What I See? #1
0 128 (lucid) ‘ . . . With Chris and Dave, I go to the cliff’s edge to talk. The scene looks familiar to me, and due to the darkness and four huge artificial lights in the sky, I conclude that it seems night. But I want the opinions of Chris and Dave, to check for consensus, to see if they see what I do. I ask questions, but they give me irrelevant answers. Finally, I decide to resort to a simple question and ask, “Is it night or day?” Dave said “It’s day,” and that far to the left, he saw between two pillars the beautiful blue waters of the Caribbean in the early dawn.
Chris asks me what I see, and I said it looks like night, and ask them if they could see four large electric lights burning. They tell me that they see them, but now I notice that what I see had changed – I now see four small lights over a boxlike machine on a wall. This makes me more lucid, and I reflect on how the laws of perspective might change in dreams, or in the astral world. . . . “
Of course, even in physical reality, where two individuals objectively see ‘the same’ ink blot, they may perceive it quite differently. In dreams, much more so than in waking life, we identify what we experience in terms of those objects and processes familiar to us, even if the match seems very poor. To the dreaming mind, ‘similar to’ often becomes ‘identical to.’
Dreamers routinely ignore differences. I wrote about this “substitution phenomenon” in 1985 (7) and developed this concept in subsequent papers (4, 8-11). However in some dreams, the disparity between what I see and what a DE reports to me, goes beyond what the inkblot metaphor can reasonably explain, as in this dream:
Do You See What I See? #2
17 38 (lucid) “At the S.B. Conference . . . I walk outside and realize that I dream, and call out “Leia!” a few times, remembering that in WPR she has also has a dorm room here, curious to see if I can contact her in the dream. . . . I go down some brick stairs to a very large courtyard and call out “Leia!” a few times again.
I see a blonde girl from behind, who looks like a younger version of her, but I don’t feel certain. I tell her that she dreams this, to help her to wake up and become lucid. To my surprise she then tells me to wake up, that I dream, and to pay attention to the dream environment. However, she does not act very lively or animated, and says this almost by rote, mostly repeating what I just said to her.
Curious about consensus, I tell her that I see a brick courtyard. She says that she doesn’t. I notice that in the courtyard, the bricks now look more like red tiles. I mention this to her, but she still disagrees. I ask her, “What do you see?”, and she tells me that she sees a barber shop complex. So much for consensual validity! . . .”
Many people, especially those who’ve never had a lucid dream, continue to assume, while dreaming, that the usual rules of physical reality apply. If they leave a room, they will open a door rather than going through a wall. If they want to get from point A to point B, they will walk, or take a car – they won’t fly or teleport, not because they couldn’t, but because it would simply never occur to them to do so. And, as even in waking life people generally see what they expect to see, and will ignore what doesn’t fit, one would expect dreamers holding onto a WPR consensus trance mindset to do the same thing.
Over the years, I’ve noticed that in many dreams some DEs, who I think of as MDEs (Muggle DEs ), behave as if they can’t see me flying, or doing any other “paranormal” (in WPR) feat. Often, out of curiosity I would ask them what they saw, and if for example they told me they saw me standing, rather than floating, I’d devise an experiment to test if I floated, as I believed, or stood, as they believed. A typical example, followed by a more extreme one:
Lucid Flying Revealed
33 31 (semi-lucid) ” . . . I float along the floor. I wonder if, as in other dreams, people can see this, or if they will hallucinate me not flying. Sure enough, when I ask, they tell me I have my feet on the ground, but when I have them check with their hands, and their hands pass through where they saw my legs, they realize that I really float. One little boy gets on me and goes for a ride, I fly over the balcony and zoom over the bridge . . .”
Giving an MDE a Nervous Breakdown
37 65 (semi-lucid) “I find myself teleported to a sea cave, snug and cylindrical, on a rocky beach like Tintagel in England . . . I meet some English tourists, and one professor. Now lucid, I show him I can fly, but he says that he can’t see it, and tells me my feet still touch the ground. I decide to test this distorted perception of his, and float much higher, to the ceiling of the cave, touching it with my head. I ask if he can see this – he can.
I point out that considering the height, my feet cannot touch the ground. He agrees, and tells me he now sees my feet about 4 feet up. He looks profoundly disturbed, upset, almost freaked out. I point out that maybe he still thinks that I’ve tricked him, hauled up on an invisible wire, etc. So I go with him outside to the beach, and get him to agree that nothing exists out here to attach a wire to.
He nervously agrees, but when I float up 10 ft. or so above the ground he looks absolutely terrified. He can see that I can fly, and can no longer hallucinate that I do not. He looks ready to come apart.”
After having had many experiences of this kind, I’ve come to the tentative conclusion that the DEs that I encounter in situations like this, belong to the category of WPR based non-lucid dreamers, who holding onto waking reality consensus trance beliefs, “see what they’d expect to see.”
Furthermore, because they have become fully caught up in their subjective dream agendas, they suffer from what psychologist’s call “Inattentional Blindness”, in which people fail to notice an unexpected stimulus – when focused on performing an attention demanding task. As many experiments have shown (check out http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo for a striking example) this can drastically effect people‘s perception – even when wide awake.
I suspect that the effect of Inattentional Blindness has a far greater effect in dreams, with respect to dreamers ability to perceive unexpected phenomena. In any case, in my experience, bringing a MDE’s attention to such phenomena, can apparently result in a rather rude and unpleasant shock.
However, one might expect to get quite different reactions and consensus test responses from what I’ll call Wizard DEs (WDEs), who act as if they not only know that they dream, but understand that the rules have changed. In general I assume that WDEs correspond to WPR based dreamers who either have become lucid to some degree, or who apparently understand that they dream in some covert way, even in many of their non-lucid dreams.
Typically, because of this awareness, one would expect such people to report that they often fly or perform extraordinary feats even in their non-lucid dreams. In these examples, I not only met DEs that apparently knew that they dreamed to some degree, but who also could act on that knowledge:
The Pinching Test
17 35 (lucid) ” . . . I try to establish consensus, or the lack of it, with two DEs, who I assume seem WPR based, who believe that that they “only dream,” with all of the assumptions that involves in our culture. (Purely subjective, not real, etc.) I ask them to pinch themselves, and to their surprise, they find that doing this hurts. I have them look at a picture on the wall, and ask them what they see. One man sees a gun, something I also see, though I see it further up the picture, and playing a fairly minor part, as the picture has many other aspects to it I would have described first. . . .”
39 61 (semi-lucid) “In a schoolroom I become semi-lucid when the dreamscape changes. I now see two roads in front, and a bike-path in back. Another DE points out that he noticed it too – a rare spontaneous confirmation of consensus that surprises me.”
An Unusual Suggestion from a DE
39 65 (semi-lucid) “. . . Driving in my Dodge Caravan, I realize that I dream, and program the car for flying. I aim for a star, but find it hard to steer, hard to hold onto the wheel, kinesthesia of motion incredible, I get pressed back in the seat at what feels like 2 or 3 G’s . . . I go back to the ground, a half crash landing at a sort of truck stop in the desert. I crash into the glass door, that causes much less damage than in WPR. I get out, and use my HC chant to heal the glass. I ask the man at the station if they can fix my car, and he says, “Why not fix it yourself, like you fixed the window?” Of course! I use a chant to create a key, that will fix the car when I put it into the ignition . . .”
41 177 (lucid) “With a group of other dreamers. We teleport from one dreamscape to another. Now outside a rural train station, about ten of us try to get back to the previous dreamscape. I oversee the teleport as the dream magic teacher. We form a circle – M-F-M-F – but we can’t seem to generate the energy. DEs come up and touch us, crowding in, grounding out the energy, breaking our concentration, and our circle.
I go to another platform, where a train departs. I decide to fly to my place, and the others can follow. It should only take 25-35 seconds of fast flying to get there. I fly off, and use a river below to navigate. The dreamscape looks incredible – golden and beautiful. I have a lot of fun flying. I try out different flying positions, and find that I accelerate to about twice the speed of the other dreamers when I adopt a sort of lightning bolt pose.
Off to my right and below I see a misty palace – my place I wonder? I’ve already flown past it and try to slow down. RWPR”
A Contest of Wills
41 167 (semi-lucid to lucid) “I find myself in a dreamscape with a group of people, in a sort of D&D adventure scenario. I talk with a man who brags to me that he set all this up, that he even drafted people to come here from WPR, those who resonated with beliefs about heroism and magic, to participate in this dream. He points out another man, a warrior, in the army back in WPR, who apparently identifies with Wagner’s Siegfried, and who now gets to play that part here.
And a pretty girl, who dresses up like a witch, actualizing her own fantasy. He tells me that I used to fantasize as a child about myself as a knight. Amused, I tell him “Not really – certainly not more than once or twice.” I tell him if I had idols, they seemed superheroes like Superman or Doctor Strange.” He just looks confused that I would contradict him, and not follow his direction. He can’t place me, does not see me as a magician, but considers himself preeminent, lucid, and in control of the dream.
Becoming more lucid, I ask the fellow if he knows about INTJs (who don‘t take orders very well.) Amused at his presumption of control, I decide to disabuse him of this error. I conjure up a yellow energy ball, and chuck it at him – it detonates on his chest, knocking him flat. Fiery sparks emanate from his hands and chest – like sparklers – a very impressive display.
It doesn’t do him any damage – I intentionally made it out of healing energy so it would help and not harm, but I also wanted it to give him a strong shock, to deflate his conceit. The bewildered expression on his face amuses me quite a bit. He can’t figure me out, or how this happened. Someone he identified as a minor supporting player unexpectedly turns into a more powerful magician than himself, in a dreamscape he believed he created and controlled.”
In the foregoing, I’ve focused on DEs who I presumed most likely fell into the category of WPR Earthbased dreamers. However, except in the case of validated mutual dreams, where one can compare details of the dreams of the individuals involved and find compelling correspondences, this assumption remains just that – an assumption. While I disagree with the theory still held by many psychologists – that ALL DEs that one encounters in a dream represent aspects of oneself – I have had dreams that have convinced me that aspects of myself do show up, at least occasionally:
Meeting My Psychic Aspect
37 183 (lucid) “In my apartment (that has all sorts of odd things in it), with a friend . . . I think about this, and test to see if I dream this by jumping. My friend comes down to the floor with a thump! – but I float. I go into the living room, and now see a man/technician there, but my friend says that he sees nothing.
I try double-tapping the bed, then the person, but nothing seems to happen. . . then I notice that an attractive woman, brown-golden hair, brown eyes, light brown skin, dark dress, has appeared. I ask her if she seems an aspect of the “Greater Me,” and she answers, “Yes – the psychic aspect.”
She tells me that she feels very fortunate and happy, and very much appreciates that she has a conscious ego aspect (me) who wants to spend time with her. I ask, “How can I spend more time with you?” I hold her hand, which feels very warm. She says “take a workshop on death, or get comfortable with death (reading about it, etc.) Study death.”
With respect to other DEs more directly associated with death, throughout history people have had evidential psychopompic dreams, in which they’ve reported encountering individuals who have died. If so, this indicates not only that individuals can survive physical death, but that the after death realm, and the dream realm, overlap – or may even seem one and the same. I myself have had compelling dreams of this kind. (12) For example:
41 157 (fully lucid) “I come to myself in a room setting, sitting at a table . . . I stand up and call “Bruno L.” a few times, and look over in a corner to see [Bruno] sitting in a chair. He looks in his thirties or forties, very lean and self-possessed. He has on an elegant dark gray silk suit, a white shirt and a dark tie. He has a deep tan – very dark, and looks almost like an American Indian. He also has on a pair of glasses with black or very dark frames. Most odd of all he has a full head of white hair, although his eyebrows have dark hair.
At first glance his hair looks straight, but when I look closely his hair looks frizzy, like that of a black man, it sticks up about two inches from his head and seems so unexpected it makes me question whether I‘ve found Bruno. I say “Hi Bruno! How do you do?” He replies “Good to see you! I haven‘t seen you around?” I look at him and say “Well Bruno, you died!” [Bruno] immediately replies “No I didn‘t! I was reborn on three planes.”
He looks cool and self-possessed. I tell him “Bruno, when I said you died I meant physically. For me the word death implies rebirth.” [Bruno] nods and apologizes for “not being more demonstrative.” I find it hard to hear him, realize I begin to wake up. I try to move around to prevent RWPR, and ask Bruno to try to speak more loudly, as I can‘t hear him. Despite my efforts the whole scene fades into a sort of white light … RWPR.”
This dream had many unexpected evidential details (see 12 for a listing), enough that it convinced me that I probably dreamed WITH Bruno rather than OF him. With regard to consensus, I found his response to my remark, that he’d died, “No I didn‘t! I was reborn on three planes.” both unexpected, and thought provoking.
In the dreams I’ve just shared, I may have given the inaccurate impression that the DEs I’ve encountered all appear in human, or at least human-like, shapes. This does not seem the case. For example:
44 55 (sub-lucid) ‘On a quest into an Oz like country, vividly colored, with a blonde little girl, 8 or so, who wears magical blue sneakers. She seems a sort of witch – and I know that she plans to step on a blue tile, that will open the gateway to a world of electronic component like beings. Legend has it that these beings will swarm over us and embed us.
We travel to a Niagara Falls like setting, a tiled path, the scenery and ambiance like a combination of Oz and Michigan. I/We decide to let her open the gateway. She steps on a square tile, about 1 square foot in size that opens. The opening becomes very large and reveals a stair. Below us I see myriads of beings – like transistors, capacitors, resistors, electronic components. They swarm over us levitating.
A green entity, like a green hat pin, embeds itself into the left side of my head – only it appears to actually interface with me, though many other swarm about. Afterwards, we sit at a table with a representative of the electronic beings. It explains its purpose to optimize us to our human potential, as we fall so far from specs. We do not feel different, but when I look at my reflection on the shiny table I see that I now have long, dark, red hair going down to my shoulders, with a child‘s hairline.
I have very white skin, no mustache, and an androgynous – perhaps even a woman‘s face. I point this out, and the entity talks about aligning the physical instrumentality – the body – to correspond with the essence of the entity who manifests through it. The red hair, and white skin feels appropriate, but strange and unexpected. . . . Although we feel no different, we now have access to new abilities, but we will need to discover them through trial and error to learn how to use them.’
Although I’ve argued that DEs may often see what they expect to see, and suffer from Inattentional Blindness, my dreams have clearly shown me that the same limitations apply to me as well. Although increased lucidity, and awareness of one’s assumptions can certainly minimize such effects in their grosser forms, they can not in any way guarantee against them. In this dream a DE humorously let me know that my own misperception would lead to a rude shock, if I continued to act on what I thought I saw:
41 28 (lucid) “With a group of people, lead by a young woman / spirit guide. I recall I’ve had this dream before, and remember the events in advance. I talk to the woman about this, who smiles at me, which encourages me to make a mild pass at her. She smiles again, and tells me that she does not look like “she appears”, and that if I keep this up I’ll get a real shock. I desist, though now I wonder what she really looks like. We go flying off as a group . . . ”
This brings to mind another lucid dream. In it, I landed on the roof of a tall building, which really impressed the humanoid DEs who saw me, and even resulted in a little hero worship. Perhaps to show off a bit, I jumped off the building, landing safely on the ground below. But one of the DEs, a “young man”, decided to follow me, figuring that if I could make the jump, so could he. Unfortunately, he landed badly, injuring himself fatally.
Apparently his dream body seemed far more fragile than mine. But as he died, I saw his body sort of collapse into itself, losing all human appearance, turning into a twisted pile of indeterminate material. At the time, I wondered if “his” human appearance resulted from a human projection on my part onto the DE, that failed with the shock of his death, or a sort of glamour that the DE had imposed on me, so I would perceive him as human, rather than as something “other,” that failed when he died. I still wonder.
This paper has focused on a very limited set of possibilities with respect to DEs we might encounter in our dreams. Obviously many potential kinds of DEs exist, including, but not limited to, projected thoughtforms of our own minds, projected thoughtforms of other dreamers, aspects of our Greater Selves, other dreamers or their aspects, the non-physical selves of people who have passed on, DEs from the past or future, lower dimensional or higher-dimensional energy DEs, perceived by us as demons, angels, gods, or even God, to name but a few possibilities.
And given that psi allows us to transcend the limitations of space-time in dreams, and that the observable Physical Universe has well over 100 billion galaxies, with an estimated of 50 million billion Earth like planets, let’s not neglect the possibility that a host of extraterrestrial-based dreamers of all shapes and sizes may also inhabit a shared dreamspace.
When I first began doing dreamwork, I assumed that almost all the DEs I encountered, and the dreamscapes I experienced, existed as subjective mental projections, appearing in my personal psychological space. And while I accepted that psi played a part in some dreams, I believed that this happened relatively rarely.
However, after years of doing in depth dreamwork, I now operate under the assumption that every dream has some psi-elements, recognized or unrecognized. I now believe that even ‘ordinary’ dreams do not occur in such a ‘fine and private place’ as most people like to assume, but in an intersubjective space.
Individual subjectivity makes its primary impact in how we perceive and later interpret what we dream. We perceive what we expect to perceive, identifying what we see in accordance with what seems most familiar to us. My experiences with DEs in dreams may or may not reflect your own experiences, or that of others. Nevertheless, I suggest keeping an open mind as to the possibilities, and taking a phenomenological attitude with respect to one’s dreams.
- Montague Ullman, Stanley Krippner, and Allan Vaughn, (1973), Dream Telepathy: Experiments in Nocturnal ESP, Penguin Books, Baltimore.
- S. J. Sherwood, and C. A. Roe, (2003). ‘A review of dream ESP studies conducted since the Maimonides dream ESP programme’ Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 85-109.
- E. W. Kellogg III, (2003), Psi-Perception in Dreams: Next Stop – the Twilight Zone. Presented at IASD’s Second PsiberDreaming Conference. Available on the IASD website: http://www.asdreams.org/telepathy/kellogg_pdc2003_001.htm
- E. W. Kellogg III, (1997), ‘A Mutual Lucid Dream Event’, Dream Time, 14(2), 32-34. Available on the IASD website: http://www.asdreams.org/telepathy/kellogg_1997_mutual_lucid_dream_event.htm
- Linda Lane Magallón, (1997), Mutual Dreaming: When Two or More People Share the Same Dream, Simon and Schuster, Inc.
- Robert Waggoner, (2009), Lucid Dreaming: Gateway to the Inner Self, Moment Point Press.
- E. W. Kellogg III, (1985). ‘The Substitution Phenomenon.’ Dream Network Bulletin, 4(5), 5-7.
- E. W. Kellogg III, (1989). ‘Mapping Territories: A Phenomenology of Lucid Dream Reality.’ Lucidity Letter, 8(2), 81 – 97.
- E. W. Kellogg III, (1992). ‘The Lucidity Continuum,’ a paper presented at the Eighth Annual Conference of the Lucidity Association in Santa Cruz, June 28, 1992. Published in the October, 2004 issue of Electric Dreams, 11, Issue #10. Available at the Dream Research Institute website: http://www.driccpe.org.uk/portfolio-view/the-lucidity-continuum-ed-kellogg
- E. W. Kellogg III, (1999), ‘Lucid Dreaming and the Phenomenological Epoché,’ Presented at the Society for Phenomenology and the Human Sciences Conference in Eugene, Oregon, October 7- 9, 1999. Available at the Dream Research Institute website: http:// www.driccpe.org.uk/portfolio-view/lucid-dreaming-and-the-phenomenological-epoche-e-w-kellogg-iii-ph-d
- E. W. Kellogg III, (2001), ‘ASD 2001 Telepathy Contest: A Precognitive Approach’, DreamTime, 18(2-3), 20, 41. Available on the IASD website: http://www.asdreams.org/telepathy/contest2001/kellogg.htm
- E. W. Kellogg III, (2004), Psychopompic Dreaming: Visits With Those Who Have Passed On? Presented at IASD’s Third PsiberDreaming Conference. Available on the IASD website: http://www.asdreams.org/telepathy/2004kellogg_psychopomp.htm